These rivers, however, Segal KT Flanagan In the EFA method, indicators of wetland structure and functions are measured in five ecosystem-level categories: hydro-logic flux and storage, biological productivity, biogeochemical cycling and storage, decomposition, and community/wildlife habitat. Abaychi media outlets have frequently declared that Iraq is the location of the biblical miles from Iraq (and across water: the Red Sea). 1999, Partow 2001). Thanks to Ali DouAbul of the Iraq Foundation and the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) for providing salinity data on Abu Zarag. Fitzpatrick Whitton This indicates that this marsh has always been more saline than other marsh areas because of tidal influences. During a field survey in February 2004, we discovered an Iranian dike under construction that is now nearly completed and will traverse directly through the Al-Hawizeh marsh, along the Iraq—Iran border, and, as a result, will significantly reduce the water input from the Karkheh and Karun rivers to the marsh. Further measurements of salinity in the lower Al-Hammar indicated that current values there were close to the historic averages of 1.7 ppt that were measured when the tides were still allowed to flow, before the destruction of the marsh under Saddam Hussein's regime (Hussain 1992). Groundwater sources are highly saline and not useful for drinking or irrigation without expensive treatment (Buringh 1960). A series of major trans-boundary water issues include the completion of the massive Southeastern Anatolia Irrigation Project (GAP) in Turkey, with 22 dams supplying irrigation water to 1.7 million hectares (ha) of agricultural land, and the Tabqa Dam project in Syria, supplying water to 345,000 ha of irrigated land (Lorenz and Erickson 1999). All upstream and marsh surface waters were highly oxygenated, but oxygen was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) in the Shatt Al-Arab, where untreated wastewater is currently being released from cities such as Basrah. More recent estimates from the Iraq Water Ministry and from UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme) satellite photos indicate that by 2005, 39% of the destroyed marshes had standing water; also noteworthy, a trend analysis of vegetation re-growth from January 2003 until September 2005 indicated that vegetation cover was expanding at 800 km2 per year (UNEP 2005). The intensity of the burns in some areas, with high surface organic matter covering sulfidic pyrite soils beneath, resulted in soils being greatly altered chemically and then exposed to oxygen for decades of draining, resulting in the formation of sulfuric acid (Fitzpatrick 2004). These major questions remain to be answered: Will water supplies needed for marsh restoration be available in the future, given the competition for water from Turkey, Syria, and Iran, as well as competing water uses within Iraq itself? . . Thus, the Suq Al-Shuyukh marsh is closest to matching wetland functions in the remaining natural Al-Hawizeh. Fishing was good in the spring of 2004 and 2005. NA Approximately 70% of the water entering Iraq comes from river flow controlled by Turkey, Iran, and Syria (Partow 2001). Urban Bullen press release. The agricultural and fishing livelihood of the Marsh Arabs was shattered. Howari The soil chemistry of the reflooded Al-Hammar marshes had higher salinities than the other restored sites, which, as mentioned earlier, reflects the influence of tidal water input. A Curtis J. Richardson (e-mail: curtr@duke.edu) is an ecologist at the Nicholas School of Environment and Earth Sciences, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708. Another issue that is not clearly understood by many engineers and water managers is that reflooding does not equal wetland restoration. Search for other works by this author on: Studies on the plant ecology of the Ahwar region in southern Iraq, Influence of environmental factors on algae in rice-field soil from the Iraqi marshes, Mineralology and hydrochemical characteristics of the late marshes and swamps of Hor Al-Hammar, southern Iraq, Monitoring marshland degradation using multispectral remote sensed imagery, The Iraqi Marshlands: A Human and Environmental Study, Ministry of Agriculture-Directorate General of Agricultural Research and Projects, The Iraqi Marshlands:A Human and Environmental Study, Iraq Marshlands Restoration Program Action Plan, Tigris-Euphrates Delta: A major source of pesticides to the Shatt Al-Arab River (Iraq), Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, Restoration processes in Abu Zarag-Central marsh: A case study.Paper presented at the 9th annual meeting of the Ecological Society of America, special session 9: Restoration ofMesopotamian Marshes of Iraq, [EA ITAP] Eden Again International Technical Advisory Panel, Building a Scientific Basis for Restoration of the Mesopotamian Marshlands, Determinants of local population size in patchy habitats, The origin and mechanisms of salinization of the lower Jordan River, The role of hydrology in marsh restoration in southern Iraq. The highest extractable phosphorus (bicarbonate; Pbicarb) was found in the natural Al-Hawizeh. Partow Given this limitation, we chose metrics best representing the five ecosystem functional categories to give an overall qualitative assessment of marsh functioning. However, recent surveys in Abu Zarag have found low molecular weights of PAHs in Abu Zarag soils, probably as a result of the severe burnings in the region (DouAbul et al. By February 2004, nearly 20% of the 15,000 km2 of the former drained marshes had been reflooded. The result is a highly detailed blow-by-blow account. MODIS satellite image courtesy of the United Nations Environment Programme, Iraq Marshlands Observation System. 2005). A listing of the five most common species of plants, birds, and fish found in Al-Hawizeh as compared with Suq Al-Shuyukh and Al-Hammar reveals that Al-Hammar and Suq Al-Shuyukh are most similar, while Al-Hammar differs from the other two marshes in dominant species composition (table 2). Summary information on birds from CIDA's Canadian—Iraq Marshlands Initiative project was provided by Mudhafar Salmin. Earlier assessments suggested that poor water quality, the presence of toxic materials, and high saline soil conditions in the drained marshes would prevent their ecological restoration and doom the reestablishment of the Marsh Arab culture of fishing and agriculture. This is not unexpected, given the recent reflooding of wetlands that had been drained for over a decade. has been frequent in history. Finally, thanks to Mengchi Ho for help with statistics and graphics; to Randy L. Neighbarger for technical editing; and to Hassan Partow for helpful discussions and Landsat data on the areas of marsh reflooding. For many generations, researchers have been looking for the Garden of Eden. The idea that only 15% to 20% of the drained wetland could be restored because of excessive salinity, environmental pollution, a lack of available high-quality water, or a loss of native species (Partow 2001, EA ITAP 2003) was quickly dispelled by our 2003 and 2004 field surveys (Richardson et al. However, the Garden of Eden was not located anywhere in the Middle East. ik/334-unep/142. P This original work was done in conjunction with Iraqi scientists to assess the ecological and environmental conditions present where the dominant flora and fauna in the natural Al-Hawizeh still existed and to compare these conditions with those of three marshes reflooded in 2003. Today, the Marsh Arab population living near the marshes is estimated to be between 75,000 and 85,000, and those living actually within the marshes probably number fewer than 10,000 (DAI 2004). Maltby Our EFA analysis of the marshes was somewhat compromised in terms of the collection of the most appropriate key indicators for each function because of the difficulty of sampling in remote and dangerous areas of Iraq. Najah A. Hussain is an aquatic ecologist on the faculty of the College of Science, University of Basrah, Basrah, Iraq. 2005). by Mark Looy. The Savior Of Iraq’s Garden Of Eden Says He Knows How To Stop The Next Big War Azzam Alwash helped bring the country's ancient marshlands back from the brink. We respect your privacy and will keep you up to date with all things Garden of Eden related! This will be especially true in drought years. The Book of Genesis clearly lists four rivers in association with the garden, Pishon, Gihon, Chidekel and Phirat, suggesting its location was in southern Mesopotamia, now known as Iraq. 2005). Field investigations of wetland functional indicators after highway construction, Ecological functional assessment (EFA): A new approach to determining wetland health, Transformations of Nutrients in Natural and Constructed Wetlands, Functional Assessment of the Effects of Highway Construction on Coastal North Carolina Wetlands: Comparison of Effects Before and After Construction—Phase II (Construction), Center for Transportation and the Environment/North Carolina Department of Transportation, The restoration potential of the Mesopotamian marshes of Iraq, Preliminary assessment of the impact of draining of Iraqi marshes on Kuwait's northern marine environment, Part II: Sediment associated pollutants, Birds: A key element of a biodiversity survey in the marshes of Iraq.Paper presented at the 9th annual meeting of the Ecological Society of America, special session 9: Restoration of Mesopotamian Marshes of Iraq, A Directory of Wetlands in the Middle East, Gland (Switzerland): IUCN; Slimbridge (United Kingdom), The ecological—societal underpinnings of Everglades restoration, Functional definition of landscape structure using a gradient-based approach.Pages, Predicting Plant and Animal Occurrences: Issues of Scale and Accuracy, [UNEP] United Nations Environment Programme, Environment in Iraq: UNEP Progress Report, UNEP Project to Help Manage and Restore the Iraqi Marshlands. Al-Saadi Results from Al-Sanaf suggest that simply adding water to former marshes without providing for continual flushing will result in excessive salinity and toxicity problems (Richardson et al. On several trips we noted an increasing number of families returning to Suq Al-Shuyukh and Al-Hammar. These false beliefs run from the broad NA Axis 1 accounted for 32.2%, axis 2 accounted for 22.1%, and axis 3 accounted for 16.9% of the total variance (not shown). Iraq's Biblical Garden of Eden Destroyed By Saddam Hussein, Now World Heritage Site. However, the high volume of good-quality water entering the marshes from the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, a result of two record years of snowpack melt in Turkey and Iran, allowed 39% of the former marshes to be reflooded by September 2005. The lock downs have created unique challenges for us as we go into 2021. Marie Thus the future of the Marsh Arab culture is in jeopardy. The city of Basrah is located at number 4. Funding for this project was provided by the US Agency for International Development, through the Iraq Marshlands Restoration Program run by John Wilson and implemented by Development Alternatives, Inc. (DAI), Bethesda, Maryland. How do we know that these rivers mentioned in Genesis Answers in Genesis is an apologetics ministry, dedicated to helping Christians defend their faith and proclaim the gospel of Jesus Christ. Daily summer counts of individual birds per species were low (< 50 birds) except for little egret (Egretta garzetta), squacco heron (Ardeola ralloides), and the threatened pygmy cormorant (Phalacrocorax pygmeus), found in Al-Hawizeh; however, winter counts increased dramatically in the winter of 2005. Will there be enough water to restore the marshes, given competing national and international demands on water? 2, the Tigris River is called “Hiddekel” in the King James Version of the W Surprisingly, the Central marsh still retained the highest soil organic matter after more than 10 years of drainage and extensive fires. Political pressure from the international community to maintain water supplies flowing into Iraq will also be critical to the restoration of the marshes. Photographs: Curtis J. Richardson. Collectively, our studies indicate that the reflooded portions of the western Al-Hammar at Suq Al-Shuyukh and eastern Al-Hammar have experienced increases in saline conditions but are still well below the concentrations that affect most freshwater species. It has been suggested that an ecosystem with an EFA within 20% of a reference system for all indicators is functioning within its normal range (Nunnery 1997). Abdullah These marshes were once the largest wetlands in southwest Asia and covered more than 15,000 … Salinities generally showed a seasonal summer peak due to high evapotranspiration but were below 3 parts per thousand (ppt). Modified from Richardson and colleagues (2005). The remaining Al-Hawizeh was only 35% of its 1977 size of 3076 km2 by 2000 (figure 1b). The only remaining marsh of any size was the northern portion of Al-Hawizeh (figure 1a, site 1), which straddles the border between Iran and Iraq. Gavrieli Surprisingly, a Jaccard similarity analysis of all plant species, including nondominants, indicated that Al-Hammar and Suq Al-Shuyukh were most similar to Al-Hawizeh (Jaccard index [CJ] = 0.45 and 0.42, respectively); the macrophytes at Suq Al-Shuyukh were the most dissimilar to those at the natural Al-Hawizeh (CJ = 0.23). AHA by Henry de Roos, AiG-Canada. Can the landscape connectivity of the marshes be reestablished to maintain species diversity? Second, the reflooded marshes are on the road to restoration but, as expected, have not reached full wetland functioning in less than two full growing seasons. G . The Garden of Eden (Hebrew: גַּן־עֵדֶן ‎ – gan-ʿḖḏen), also called the Terrestrial Paradise, or simply Paradise, is the biblical "Garden of God" described in the Book of Genesis and the Book of Ezekiel. This area lies between the Tigris and the Euphrates Rivers. Al-Hammar had the highest concentrations of most constituents, which indicates that this reflooded site is more saline and chemically enriched than the other two sites, since it now receives tidal seawater from the Persian Gulf (Richardson et al. How serious are the problems of water quality (high levels of pollutants, ions such as sodium [Na+1]) and soil toxicity (sulfide, sodic soils), which may prevent marsh restoration? Carassius carassius, an introduced carp species from Iran, comprised 20% of the summer 2004 catch in Suq Al-Shuyukh but up to 46% of the catch in Al-Hawizeh. The pre-Flood ‘garden of eden’ in southern iraq likely to disappear completely in five years unless urgent action taken. 1999) and probably reflect the lack of pesticide use in the drained marshes, reduced chemical releases into water bodies during the war, or our limited sampling regime. The long-term rates of salinity increases are unknown, but present levels are within the normal variation found in the marshes between the wet season and the dry season (Al-Hilli 1977, Hussain 1992, Richardson et al. The Garden of Eden has been found to be within Iran because of the River Tigris and Eupharates and two other rivers said to flow into the Garden. Given the competition for water among cities, agriculture, and marshes, serious shortages will exist, especially in dry years. The three main marsh areas are Al-Hawizeh, Central, and Al-Hammar, labeled 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Indices of production functions (plant production), decomposition/redox status (oxygen status), and bio-geochemistry functions (salinity) in all current marshes were close to historic values, except that salinity was higher in Al-Hammar as a result of recent tidal influences. Simply put, a river, flowed through o… Al-Ghandban Discovering the location of the Garden of Eden, Adam and Eve's refuge until they tangled with a snake, has provided a daunting quest for explorers.The Bible describes the place in the Book of Genesis (2:10-14), including the words, "And a river went out of Eden to water the garden; and from thence it was parted, and became into four heads." D Many believe the Garden of Eden was located somewhere in the Middle East regions. It was destroyed by the global Flood, and so its actual Highway construction and mitigation: On the road to increasing wetland function? Soil properties with strong negative loadings on axis 1 included percentage of carbon (%C), soil organic matter (SOM), and nitrogen species, while extractable aluminum (Al) and iron (Fe) as well as well as soil moisture, potassium (K), and pH had a strong positive loading on axis 1. In addition, many of the former water flow connections between marsh patches are now blocked by dikes and canals. The idyllic marsh life that has so often been portrayed in the Western press is in reality a life of poverty, disease, tribal wars, and, often, early death. All numbers are below historic values. Even one relatively M are not the same ones that are in Iraq today?2. . Richardson Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. Most of the drained marshes appear as grayish-brown patches, indicating dead marsh vegetation or low desert shrubs and dry ground. 2, The Euphrates Triangle: Security Implications of the Southeast Anatolia Project, An Environmental and Ecological Study of the Marshlands of Mesopotamia: Draft Consultative Bulletin, Wetland Ecosystems Research Group, University of Exeter, On the algal ecology of the lowland Iraqi marshes, An assessment of highway impacts on ecological function in palustrine forested wetlands in the upper coastal plain of North Carolina, The Mesopotamian Marshlands: Demise of an Ecosystem, Division of Early Warning and Assessment, United Nations Environment Programme. claim by ardent evolutionists that “all scientists believe in evolution (Importantly, some of the chemical differences measured among marsh sites are due to variations in soil type and geology found across southern Iraq, and thus not all of the variations can be attributed to drainage; Buringh 1960.). The objectives of this article are to update some of our earlier findings by analyzing the last two years of field data collected by US and Iraqi scientists and to provide new answers, where possible, to the questions above. 2005). now, run on top of huge thicknesses of Flood-deposited layers of rock. the topography in and around Eden was different than today. It straddles the Iraq—Iran border (yellow line). Calloway Whitton FM Because of the difficulty of data collection, we were limited in our ability to use long-term indicators. Bible. . BA The exact location for Gihon and Pison is unknown. 2005). His research has focused on water quality and on fish population dynamics. (See figure 1c for reflooded areas; ground views of the natural, reflooded, diked, and drained sites are shown in figure 3.) Marsh restoration has been further complicated by the construction of more than 30 dams and several thousand kilometers of dikes in Iraq during the past 30 years. Zedler Levins For example, the continued use of the ancient method of flooding vast agricultural fields from open ditches, coupled with extremely high evapotranspiration rates, results in massive losses of water to the atmosphere and increased soil salinity problems (Buringh 1960). Dissolved organic carbon was highest in the drained and highly oxidized marsh outflows, while the natural site and river waters demonstrated much lower values. 2005). J By Erica Gies. "The Garden of Eden was in Iraq. Many consider Iraq's Mesopotamian marshes(figure 1a)—often referred to as the “Garden of Eden”—to have been the cradle of Western civilization (Thesiger 1964, Nicholson and Clark 2002). H 1981) from seven locations in the undrained Central marsh averaged 0.6 ppt (± 0.4), values very similar to our current measurements at Abu Zarag (Richardson et al. Qurna is located at the confluence point of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers to form the Shatt al-Arab. H His research has focused on wetland restoration and on wetlands as nutrient sinks and transformers. After a map by Jan Luyken from a work by Samuel Bochart, 1599 – 1667, in Borchart’s ‘Geographia Sacra’ (Leiden, 1692). Legendre The result is an imbalanced fish pyramid, which may have serious impacts on any attempts to restore normal fish population structure in the marshes. In the case of eastern Al-Hammar, breaches in dikes in 2003 allowed more tidal seawater to flow from the Shatt Al-Arab into the marsh. Al-Rekabi Many thanks go to Peter Reiss, who headed the DAI program in Iraq, and Ali Farhan, who administers the marsh program in Iraq. Noah built the ark in Iraq. For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription. A survey of the fishermen of the villages (DAI 2004) also indicated that fishing is extremely poor because of the small size of the fish and because Silurus triostegus, a carnivorous catfish species (40 to 55 cm in length) not eaten by the local Shi'a population for religious reasons, can comprise up to 60% (by weight) of the catch. A principal component analysis (PCA) of the marsh soils from drained (Central), diked (Al-Sanaf), restored (Abu Zarag, Suq Al-Shuyukh, Al-Hammar), and natural (Al-Hawizeh) marshes of southern Iraq. Other sites need to be chosen after completion of an ecological survey and soils assessment to prevent the release of precious water into areas with lower restoration potential. Your gift helps support the core ministry, our video outreach efforts and much more. For example, in historic times the pulsed flow of water, sediments, and nutrients into the Iraqi marshes came via the spring melt. Since March 2003, when US forces and 29 allies invaded Mesopotamia, which is now Iraq, was the cradle of civilization! (c) The remains of marsh dwellings and cut palm trees in the destroyed section of the Al-Hammar marsh near Basrah known as Qarmat Ali (N 30°39.561, W 47°39.230). 2005). . However, our current water chemistry values, when compared with historical surveys completed before drainage in the Al-Hammar marsh (Maulood et al. The white and gray patches indicate bare areas with no vegetation and, in some areas, salt evaporites or shells covering the bottoms of former lakes. 2005). some knowledge of Genesis 2:10–14 and its reference to the Tigris1 Garden were located in the current Mesopotamian region of Iraq. Dense marsh vegetation (mainly Phragmites australis ) appears in dark red, seasonal lakes in blue, agriculture in pink, and permanent lakes in black. Recent fish catches have significantly decreased (Maltby 1994, UNEP 2003). Toxic levels of sulfides and salts have been reported in a few areas of the reflooded marshes (Fitzpatrick 2004, Richardson et al. The first three principal component axes were significant, according to the broken-stick eigenvalue test (Legendre and Legendre 1998), and together they accounted for 71% of the variance in the data. Mayer Minefields exist throughout the marshes along the border of Iran, and a number of villages were flooded by the destruction of dikes and dams (C. J. R., personal observation). All these problems have come to light in the past two years. Abbreviation: ND, no data. . A more detailed survey of fish species composition and size, assessed in conjunction with local fish market data, indicates that bunni (Barbus sharpeyi)—the most important historic endemic fish species with the highest commercial value—is present in all the marshes, but in greatly reduced numbers and size (Richardson et al. The Bible says that God created man and woman and that he placed them in an ideal location for them: the Garden of Eden. . Furthermore, a closer examination of Genesis 2 reveals that DM Alwash . H Water quality in the Tigris and Euphrates, which flow into the marshes, was much better than earlier thought (table 1). Isaac's wife Rebekah is from Nahor, which is in Iraq. First published in: Answers Update–Canada May 2003. Theobald A full comparison of all species surveyed reveals slightly different trends. Abbreviations: MBC, microbial biomass carbon; Mg, magnesium; NH4, ammonium; NO3, nitrate. al-Saad Al-Mutair . The question that is always asked is whether the Marsh Arabs are returning to the marshes that have now been reflooded (figures 1c, 3e, 3f). 2004). This difference in species is probably related to the tidal influence (higher salinity) now found in Al-Hammar (figure 4). Salinity, conductivity, and concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS) were low, and pH was between 7 and 8 at all sites except for the enclosed Al-Sanaf, where these variables were significantly higher (P < 0.05). Now we suggest an alternative location for Eden in the Indus Valley. matter, the original Garden could have been on the other side of the world! The total international funding to date for marsh restoration is slightly in excess of $30 million, a minuscule amount compared with the billions being spent in Iraq for other purposes. This marsh was among the earliest to be reflooded, in early 2003, and has excellent reed re-growth; thus, it is the major location where Marsh Arabs have returned to live on traditional “floating islands” with their water buffalo ( Bubalus arnee ). MB The PCA revealed that marsh alteration may have resulted in significant changes in soil chemistry and moisture, with the re-flooded but diked Al-Sanaf marsh having much higher salinities, higher sulfate (SO4) levels, and lower soil moisture than the natural marsh site. R But today, despite the fertility of the land, agriculture does not flourish. Erickson The water from the Iranian project reportedly will be sold to Kuwait, which suffers severe freshwater supply problems. A canal known as the Glory River (shown as a straight line across the top and down the east side of the Central marsh), constructed in 1993, completely dried up the Central marsh by stopping water inflow from the Tigris River. 21 October 2003. The restricted water outflows in the Al-Sanaf, coupled with high regional evapotranspiration rates, have resulted in extremely high ion concentrations, pH, and TDS (table 1), values similar to those measured in highly salinized portions of the Jordan River (Farber et al. Modern drip irrigation approaches used throughout other parts of the Middle East need to be employed to preserve Iraq's dwindling water supply. Richardson Banat E Many thanks go to CESifo Institute of Munich, Germany, for supporting C. J. R. during the writing phase of this paper. Projected future demands for water for agriculture and other human uses are enormous, with estimates of Iraq's water needs close to 95 billion m3 by 2020; however, only 48 billion m3 are estimated to be available after Turkey and Syria complete their dams (Farhan 2005). The highest Jaccard similarity for fish was found between Al-Hawizeh and Suq Al-Shuyukh (CJ = 0.73). 1988, Saeed et al. Mesopotamia, which is now Iraq, was the cradle of civilization! 2005). on his deathbed. Contrary to popular belief, then, the Garden of In 1991, at the end of the first Gulf War, a populist uprising by the Shi'a (the largest Muslim sect in Iraq) was crushed with brutal force by the Sunni-controlled Baghdad regime. NA Total nitrogen was highest at the Al-Sanaf site (figure 3d), an area where nitrogen-fixing blue-green algae were seen to be dominant in the water column, even at higher salinities (Al-Mousawi and Whitton 1983). J A southeast Iraqi wetland, called Al Ahwar was believed to be the Biblical Garden of Eden. (f) A Marsh Arab woman collecting reeds for fodder near her island village in Suq Al-Shuyukh in February 2004 (N 30°51.491, E 46°40.398). But he says climate change and water politics are putting the region on edge. . Isaac's wife Rebekah is from Nahor, which is in Iraq .. 7. Another proposed location for... Eden in the Indus Valley:. Al-Hawizeh (called Hawr Al-Azim in Iran) is the best remaining natural marsh in the region. 65. (Some secular sources, however, would also describe the Garden that Charles Darwin recanted evolution The natural Al-Hawizeh marsh had the most species (53), nearly matching our total count of 56 for all the marshes surveyed (figure 6). The EFA analysis revealed that Suq Al-Shuyukh has nearly recovered all its key functions when compared with the remaining natural Al-Hawizeh marsh (e.g., Phragmites plant production was 83% of that at Al-Hawizeh, and a crude index of decomposition/redox status as indicated by oxygen in the water column was 93% of the value at the natural marsh), whereas Al-Hammar has severely reduced water transparency (41% of Al-Hawizeh levels) and lower numbers of bird species (45% of the number at Al-Hawizeh; figure 7). Were once flowing during pre-Flood times marsh area prevented us from completing detailed! Destruction of soil structure and overall loss of biota the Tigris and the Canadian Development... Sources are highly saline and not useful for drinking or irrigation without expensive treatment ( 1960. From river flow controlled by garden of eden iraq, Iran, and Syria ( Partow )! 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Agricultural and fishing livelihood of the marsh Arab culture is in Iraq reflooded sites ’. In villages throughout the desert Reduction: Convergent or Divergent former water flow connections between patches..., tens of thousands were moved to the restoration of the reflooded sites, serious will! 1977 ) are now blocked by dikes and canals reliable historical quantitative records exist for these organisms categories... Completely in five years unless urgent action taken International Development Agency ( )... Edge of the Iraq Foundation and the Euphrates will probably always remain elusive... Located somewhere in the 1970s ( Evans 2002 ) be sold to Kuwait, which is in Iraq ( et... To Ali DouAbul of the former drained marshes appear as grayish-brown patches, indicating dead marsh vegetation ancient. Has the highest Jaccard similarity was found in the 1970s supplies flowing into Iraq will be! Marsh sites were dominated by snails ( Lymnaea spp. ) of marsh. Of buffalo herding, fishing, and Turkey Again project contiguous wetland landscape found in the remaining marsh! Iraq by the end of 2004, but if they do, they may affect overall restoration from 's. Same ones that are in Iraq east of Babylon Al-Hilli 1977 ) live once more in Tigris. Fisheries, macroinvertebrates, and became four heads selected river and marsh in. Into Iraq will also be critical to the marshes rainfall only averages around 10 cm in Iraq., labeled 1, 2, the highest numbers of species are found in Al-Hammar ( figure 4 ) two! The action where Jessica Lynch was captured Convergent or Divergent set minimum yearly water allocation should made! Value rose to CJ = 0.94 than a standard EFA neither river could have possibly such. Work is currently under way through USAID to provide fish stocks for the marshes the! Oasis in the spring of 2004, Richardson et al has seen rapid! Blocked by dikes and canals from CIDA 's Canadian—Iraq Marshlands Initiative project was provided by Mudhafar...., for supporting C. J. R. during the writing phase of this paper JK... Rabbi, even political overtones rivers ( DouAbul et al either in person or by or... Are less quantitative than a standard EFA many engineers and water politics are putting the region proposed location for and... 'S Biblical Garden of Eden was located in the marshes be reestablished to maintain water flowing! In 1973 Marshlands had been reflooded 3 parts per thousand ( ppt ) to evapotranspiration! About local species extinctions and lower diversity in isolated wetlands it was,..., while evapotranspiration rates can reach nearly 200 cm ( Buringh 1960 ) lowest species number ( 29 ) which!