The file or command is written to only if the query successfully returns zero or more tuples, not if the query fails or is a non-data-returning SQL command. If no arguments are given, a new connection is made using the same parameters as before. Tilde (~) expansion is performed. An exception is that if the host setting is changed from its previous value using the positional syntax, any hostaddr setting present in the existing connection's parameters is dropped. The \ir command is similar to \i, but resolves relative file names differently. psql provides variable substitution features similar to common Unix command shells. Example: This command fetches and shows the definition of the named function or procedure, in the form of a CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION or CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE command. To set a variable with an empty value, use the equal sign but leave off the value. (The latter form is almost always preferable, unless you are very sure of what is in the variable.) If + is appended to the command name, the sum of the sizes of each relation's partitions is also displayed, along with the relation's description. In other formats, it always behaves as if the expanded mode is off. There are various shortcut commands for \pset. Lists aggregate functions, together with their return type and the data types they operate on. Sets or toggles expanded table formatting mode. This is equivalent to setting the variable ECHO_HIDDEN to on. Sets the record separator to use in unaligned output format to a zero byte. In case, you are wondering what psql is; this excerpt from the official site of PostgreSQL talks about psql in an elegant way-psql is a terminal-based front-end to PostgreSQL. See Prompting below. Also, psql only prints the result of the last SQL command in the string. is read or the stream reaches EOF. Denial of responsibility: This work is not a part of the official PostgreSQL documentation. The definition is printed to the current query output channel, as set by \o. Turns on HTML query output format. This option can be repeated and combined in any order with the -c option. is shown in the right-hand margin of the first line, and again in the left-hand margin of the following line. The name must consist of letters (including non-Latin letters), digits, and underscores. Once an \if or \elif test has succeeded, the arguments of later \elif commands in the same block are not evaluated but are treated as false. Note that here you have to separate name and value with an equal sign instead of a space. this form For example. Within the text enclosed in backquotes, no special quoting or other processing occurs, except that appearances of :variable_name where variable_name is a psql variable name are replaced by the variable's value. Specifies the TCP port or the local Unix-domain socket file extension on which the server is listening for connections. This is set every time you connect to a database (including program start-up), but can be changed or unset. However, a semicolon entered as \; will not trigger command processing, so that the command before it and the one after are effectively combined and sent to the server in one request. Meta-commands are more commonly called slash or backslash commands. By default, only user-created objects are shown; supply a pattern or the S modifier to include system objects. Determines which letter case to use when completing an SQL key word. If pattern is specified, only dictionaries whose names match the pattern are shown. If command is not specified, then psql will list all the commands for which syntax help is available. Sets the border drawing style for the unicode line style to one of single or double. That way one can create, for example, tab-separated output, which other programs might prefer. Index Access Method Interface Definition, 69. If the HTML format is already on, it is switched back to the default aligned text format. If set to all, all nonempty input lines are printed to standard output as they are read. If none of them is set, the default is to use vi on Unix systems or notepad.exe on Windows systems. The dbname can be a connection string. which is taken as a separator as mentioned above, * which is translated to the regular-expression notation . The semantics of value vary depending on the selected option. To quote the value of a variable as an SQL literal, write a colon followed by the variable name in single quotes. So a valid value is any unambiguous case-insensitive match for one of: true, false, 1, 0, on, off, yes, no. Note that you cannot just connect to any database under any user name. This can be used to intersperse interactive input with input from files. The value must be a number. This is equivalent to specifying dbname as the first non-option argument on the command line. “Query results” includes all tables, command responses, and notices obtained from the database server, as well as output of various backslash commands that query the database (such as \d); but not error messages. If pattern is specified, only functions whose names match the pattern are shown. Lists installed extensions. If pattern is specified, only entries whose name matches the pattern are listed. In this group of commands, the letters E, i, m, s, t, and v stand for foreign table, index, materialized view, sequence, table, and view, respectively. ), psql will return an error and terminate. Shows the copyright and distribution terms of PostgreSQL. The default prompts are '%/%R%x%# ' for prompts 1 and 2, and '>> ' for prompt 3. Wait the specified number of seconds (default 2) between executions. The default is the vertical bar (|). results in sending the three SQL commands to the server in a single request, when the non-backslashed semicolon is reached. The autocommit-on mode is PostgreSQL's traditional behavior, but autocommit-off is closer to the SQL spec. Specifies that psql should do its work quietly. I’ve written about it quite a few times, and here I am writing about it once again!I think it’s probably the most underrated feature of PostgreSQL, and for a simple reason: the API is a … In HTML format, this specifies attributes to be placed inside the table tag. Each column of the row is stored into a separate variable, named the same as the column. If a line number is specified, psql will position the cursor on the specified line of the function body. If value is omitted the command toggles between regular and locale-specific numeric output. psql does not support embedded NUL bytes in variable values.). Copyright © 1996-2020 The PostgreSQL Global Development Group, PostgreSQL 13.1, 12.5, 11.10, 10.15, 9.6.20, & 9.5.24 Released. By default, only user-created objects are shown; supply a pattern or the S modifier to include system objects. Before PostgreSQL 8.4, psql allowed the first argument of a single-letter backslash command to start directly after the command, without intervening whitespace. The PostgreSQL JDBC Interface. If + is appended to the command name, database sizes, default tablespaces, and descriptions are also displayed. If there is no such row, the cell is empty. Meta-commands are often called slash or backslash commands. Parsing for arguments stops at the end of the line, or when another unquoted backslash is found. In the simplest case, a pattern is just the exact name of the object. Typical values are more or less. Changes the current working directory to directory. Lists conversions between character-set encodings. If it is not unaligned, it is set to unaligned. To simplify typing, commands that consists of several words do not have to be quoted. The syntax for interpolating a value without any quoting is to prepend the variable name with a colon (:). The target function can be specified by name alone, or by name and arguments, for example foo(integer, text). Do not read the start-up file (neither the system-wide psqlrc file nor the user's ~/.psqlrc file). A comment is a sequence of characters beginning with double dashes and extending to the end of the line, e.g. (This notation is comparable to Unix shell file name patterns.) The meaning of the privilege display is explained in Section 5.7. Learn more. Sets the table title for any subsequently printed tables. Note:To build a driver plugin you need to have the appropriate client library for your Database Management System (DBMS). By default, these appear in the same order as in the query results. This is similar to the meta-command \list. In prompt 1 normally =, but @ if the session is in an inactive branch of a conditional block, or ^ if in single-line mode, or ! If the separator character appears in a field's value, that field is output within double quotes, following standard CSV rules. Set the field separator for unaligned output to a zero byte. You can view the manual for an older version or download a PDF of a manual from the below table. However, backslash commands of the \d family should work with servers of versions back to 7.4, though not necessarily with servers newer than psql itself. The first example shows how to spread a command over several lines of input. (For additional environment variables, see Section 33.14.) If this variable is set to true, a table's access method details are not displayed. If filename is - (hyphen), then standard input is read until an EOF indication or \q meta-command. These constructs deal correctly with quotes and other special characters embedded within the variable value. If no view is specified, a blank CREATE VIEW template is presented for editing. Unspecified output columns use the last specified value. If operator-family-pattern is specified, only members of operator families whose names match that pattern are listed. How To Manage an SQL Database. Also, if an individual command cannot be executed inside a transaction block, specifying this option will cause the whole transaction to fail. If + is appended to the command name, each access method is listed with its associated handler function and description. 1. To look up functions taking arguments or returning values of a specific data type, use your pager's search capability to scroll through the \df output. If this option is used, none of this happens. For example: results in a boldfaced (1;) yellow-on-black (33;40) prompt on VT100-compatible, color-capable terminals. 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