[92] According to some sources, the influential Rabbi Moses Sofer (the Chasam Sofer), who was born in Frankfurt, celebrated Purim Vintz every year, even when he served as a rabbi in Pressburg. The Tractate Megillah in the Mishnah (redacted c. 200 CE) records the laws relating to Purim. This letter authorizes the Jews to protect themselves from their enemies. The maximum interval is 20 years (1954 to 1974; will occur again 2025 to 2045). The Persian kingdom waxed strong as the Babylonian empire receded in worldly influence. First to mention these traditions was Kalonymus ben Kalonymus, who wrote of this tradition with some contempt. The myth of Purim lends itself to such reinterpretation because of its timeless and compelling nature. According to the Mishnah (Megillah 30b),[46] the story of the attack on the Jews by Amalek, the progenitor of Haman, is also to be read. [58] A sweet pastry dough is rolled out, cut into circles, and traditionally filled with a poppy seed filling; this is then wrapped up into a triangular shape with the filling either hidden or showing. On Purim day, a festive meal called the Se`udat Purim is held. [110][111], The Cave of the Patriarchs massacre took place during Purim of 1994. The Feast of Purim was instituted as a result to commemorate God's protection of the Jewish people each year (Esther 9:26-32). What Is Purim All About? The Purim Story. On Sunday (Adar 16), called Purim Meshullash, mishloach manot are sent and the festive Purim meal is held.[89]. The 14th of the first Adar is then called Purim Katan ("Little Purim" in Hebrew) and the 15th is Shushan Purim Katan, for which there are no set observances but it has a minor holiday aspect to it. 2. [38] Shaul Shaked says the date of composition of the book is unknown, but most likely not much after the fall of the Achaemenid kingdom, during the Parthian period, perhaps in the third or second century BCE[35] McCullough also suggests that Herodotus recorded the name of Xerxes's queen as Amestris (the daughter of Otanes) and not as Esther. Adolf Hitler banned and forbade the observance of Purim. ארור המן אשר בקש לאבדי ברוך מרדכי היהודי. Meet Esther, the young woman at the middle of the famous Purim story. Fasting is prohibited.[91]. In a speech made on November 10, 1938 (the day after Kristallnacht), Julius Streicher surmised that just as "the Jew butchered 75,000 Persians" in one night, the same fate would have befallen the German people had the Jews succeeded in inciting a war against Germany; the "Jews would have instituted a new Purim festival in Germany". The first who mentions the Fast of Esther is Rabbi Achai Gaon (Acha of Shabcha) (8th century CE) in She'iltot 4; the reason there given for its institution is based on an interpretation of Esther 9:18, Esther 9:31 and Talmud Megillah 2a: "The 13th was the time of gathering", which gathering is explained to have had also the purpose of public prayer and fasting. During the feast, she asks them to attend a further feast the next evening. History of Purim. [55], Today, there is debate as to whether outlying neighborhoods of Jerusalem are obliged to observe Purim on the 14th or 15th of Adar. The days following the Jews’ struggle with their enemies (the 14th and 15th of Adar) are declared days of feasting and merrymaking, today celebrated as Purim. When Mordecai finds out about the plans, he puts on sackcloth and ashes, a sign of mourning, publicly weeping and lamenting, and many other Jews in Shushan and other parts of Ahasuerus' empire do likewise, with widespread penitence and fasting. Shortly afterwards, Mordecai discovers a plot by two palace guards Bigthan and Teresh to kill Ahasuerus. The execution of Vashti and the rise and fall of Haman seem like the typical kinds of political intrigue that went on in the ancient world. The distinctions between the first and the second Purim in leap years are mentioned in the Mishnah. In 422 B.C.E. Blessed are You, Hashem, our God, King of the Universe, (the God) Who takes up our grievance, judges our claim, avenges our wrong; Who brings just retribution upon all enemies of our soul and exacts vengeance for us from our foes. Fasting for non-medical reasons is prohibited on Purim. From these Talmudic beginnings we can trace the development of a whole genre of Purim parodies, wherein Jews would affectionately poke fun at the world of Talmud and halacha. By the second century CE, Purim played such a significant role in the Jewish calendar that an entire tractate of the Mishnah (the earliest compiled rabbinic legal work), called Megillah, was based on the discussion of Purim’s proper observance. The biting content of Puri… Thinking that the king is referring to Haman himself, Haman says that the honoree should be dressed in the king's royal robes and led around on the king's royal horse. Amnon Netzer and Shaul Shaked argue that the names "Mordecai" and "Esther" are similar to those of the Babylonian gods Marduk and Ishtar. In some places,[where?] Some women pray there in the belief that Esther can work miracles. There is a longstanding custom of drinking wine at the feast. Purim takes place on the 14th day of Adar, the 12th month of the Jewish calendar. [83], Shushan Purim falls on Adar 15 and is the day on which Jews in Jerusalem celebrate Purim. Read, enjoy, and forward this history of Purim ! [42] A special prayer ("Al ha-Nissim" – "For the Miracles") is inserted into the Amidah prayers during evening, morning and afternoon prayer services, and is also included in the Birkat Hamazon ("Grace after Meals. Purim is one of the most entertaining Jewish holidays. We dress up in our favorite costumes, share gifts of food with friends, give charity to those in need, have a festive meal with family and friends, and read a story (PJ Library’s favorite activity) – specifically, the story of Queen Esther – together.. "Hiding" the meat inside the dumpling serves as another reminder of the story of Esther which is told in the only book of Hebrew Scriptures besides The Song of Songs that does not contain a single reference to God, who seems to hide behind the scenes. [52], When Haman's name is read out loud during the public chanting of the Megillah in the synagogue, which occurs 54 times, the congregation engages in noise-making to blot out his name. The second part may have been redacted as late as the eleventh century CE and contains commentary on the remaining chapters of Esther. [56] Alcoholic consumption was later codified by the early authorities, and while some advocated total intoxication, others, consistent with the opinion of many early and later rabbis, taught that one should only drink a little more than usual and then fall asleep, whereupon one will certainly not be able to tell the difference between arur Haman ("cursed be Haman") and baruch Mordecai ("blessed be Mordechai"). [82], Iranian Jews and Mountain Jews consider themselves descendants of Esther. Encyclopædia Britannica, 1911 edition: Purim. [99][100][101], Adolf Hitler banned and forbade the observance of Purim. Since Jewish performers and musicians did not exist as a professional class until the 18th century, Purim shpiels and wedding entertainments are our only source of Jewish popular pursuits for centuries. One is called Window Purim, or Purim Taka, in which the community was saved when a bag of money mysteriously appeared in a window, enabling them to pay off an extortion fee to the Ottoman Pasha. Purim Purim. In his research, Neugroschel noticed that ten Nazi defendants in the Nuremberg Trials were executed by hanging on October 16, 1946, which was the date of the final judgement day of Judaism, Hoshana Rabbah. They decree that Jewish people may preemptively kill those thought to pose a lethal risk. To fulfill the mitzvah of giving charity to two poor people, one can give either food or money equivalent to the amount of food that is eaten at a regular meal. [93] Since Purim is preceded by a fast day, the rabbi also directed his descendants to have a (private) fast day, the 5th day of Tamuz, marking one of his imprisonments (1629), this one lasting for 40 days. [26] Basing his account on Jewish and Christian sources, al-Tabari provides additional details such as the original Persian form "Asturya" for "Esther". [41] As such, according to some authorities, business transactions and even manual labor are allowed on Purim under certain circumstances. [47] At the morning reading of the Megillah the congregation should have in mind that the third blessing applies to the other observances of the day as well as to the reading of the Megillah:[47], After the Megillah reading, each member of the congregation who has heard the reading recites the following blessing. It begins when King Ahasuerus of the Persian Empire (modern day Iran) in the 4th century BC had his wife, Queen Vashti, executed for failing to follow his orders. A custom developed of writing the name of Haman, the offspring of Amalek, on two smooth stones, and knocking them together until the name was blotted out. THE FOUR MAIN MITZVOT OF PURIM. The biting content of Purim performances and the socializing, mockery, dressing up, and carousing surrounding them often provide an important forum for boundary-crossing on issues of gender, sexuality, authority, and relations with the non-Jewish world. During leap years on the Hebrew calendar, Purim is celebrated in the second month of Adar. [14], Later that evening, Ahasuerus and Haman attend Esther's second banquet, at which she reveals that she is Jewish and that Haman is planning to exterminate her people, which includes her. [80], Among Polish Jews, koilitch, a raisin Purim challah that is baked in a long twisted ring and topped with small colorful candies, is meant to evoke the colorful nature of the holiday. [94][95], The Jewish community of Hebron has celebrated two historic Purims, both from the Ottoman period. It usually falls in March. Accursed be Zeresh the wife of my terrorizer, blessed be Esther who sacrificed for me—and Charvonah, too, be remembered for good (וגם חרבונה זכור לטוב) [for suggesting to the King that Haman be hanged on the gallows. The Book of Esther recounts the story of Purim, telling of how the Jews of Persia were saved from destruction. The text’s style of Hebrew and its lack of corroborating historical information from ancient Persia suggest that the Book of Esther was not authored until well after the time it claims to describe. The previous decree against the Jewish people could not be annulled, so the King allows Mordecai and Esther to write another decree as they wish. ארורה זרש אשת מפחידי ברוכה אסתר בעדי וגם חרבונה זכור לטוב, Netzer, Amnon. "Happy Purim - Traditional Purim Greetings", "Sephardic Purim Customs from the Old World to the Pacific Northwest", "The Fascinating Evolution of the Purim-Spiel", http://www.culturecommunication.gouv.fr/content/download/131681/1429293/version/1/file/FICHE+INVENTAIRE+POURIM-SHPIL+16+decembre+2015%2B+.pdf, "Purim Songs for the AJ Family Megillah Reading", "Purim: The Poppy Seed Connection – Jewish Holidays", "Golden walnut dumplings - Aranygaluska | Zserbo.com", "The "Mordechai Hatzaddik" Yeshiva - Jewish World", "A Concise Guide to the Laws of Purim Meshulash", "Review of: Rivka Ulmer: Turmoil, Trauma, and Triumph. Barclay, Rabbi Elozor and Jaeger, Rabbi Yitzchok (2001). [47] This blessing is not recited unless a minyan was present for the Megillah reading:[47], After the nighttime Megillah reading the following two paragraphs are recited:[47], The first one is an acrostic poem that starts with each letter of the Hebrew alphabet, starting with "Who balked (... אשר הניא) the counsel of the nations and annulled the counsel of the cunning. [11] Today, only Jerusalem and a few other cities celebrate Purim on the 15th of Adar. In commemoration of this, it was decided that while the victory would be celebrated universally on Adar 14, for Jews living in Shushan, the holiday would be held on Adar 15. Rabbi Yom-Tov Lipmann Heller (1579–1654) of Kraków, Poland, asked that his family henceforth celebrate a private Purim, marking the end of his many troubles, including having faced trumped-up charges. History of Purim. Purim is one of the most festive holidays in Judaism. McCullough, Muhammad Dandamayev and Shaul Shaked say that the Book of Esther (despite its accurate details of the Achaemenid court[citation needed]) is historical fiction. Esther discovers what has transpired; there follows an exchange of messages between her and Mordecai, with Hatach, one of the palace servants, as the intermediary. As the Megillah itself tells us, that when we celebrate Purim each year, the miraculous events of Purim are "remembered and reenacted" in our lives. In. המן־טאַשן homentashn, 'Haman pockets') is an Ashkenazi Jewish triangular filled-pocket cookie, usually associated with the Jewish holiday of Purim.The name refers to Haman, the villain in the Purim story.In Hebrew, hamantashen are known as אוזני המן, oznei Haman, 'Haman's ears'. From the 12th century, Jews in Italy, southern France (Provence) and elsewhere were producing parodies on the Talmud, liturgy ,and other familiar pillars of Jewish life. [34][35] Scholars W.S. [114], The 2006 comedy film For Your Consideration employs a film-within-a-film device in which the fictitious film being produced is titled Home for Purim, and is about a Southern Jewish family's Purim celebration. The holiday of Purim is one of the Jewish tradition’s most beloved communal celebrations. Put together, these letters refer to the Jewish year 5707, which corresponds to the secular 1946–1947. Ahasuerus then orders all young women to be presented to him, so he can choose a new queen to replace Vashti. All Rights Reserved. Throughout the empire 75,000 of the Jewish peoples' enemies are killed. The Fettmilch Uprising in Frankfurt am Main (1612–1616) According to Megillas Vintz. It is not subject to business or work restrictions, unlike some other Jewish holidays. From at least as early as the 10th century, the emergence of “Special Purims” — commemorative days instituted by local Jewish communities employing any number of Purim-related customs — demonstrates Purim’s effectiveness as a prototype for engaging larger Jewish concerns in the context of shifting historical events, particularly in the case of communities or families who escaped from serious danger. This, in fact, sums up Jewish history. Purim is a joyous holiday that celebrates the saving of the Jews from a threatened massacre in ancient Persia. Mordechai, a Jew, refused to bow down and prostrate himself before Haman, the vizier to the King. Blessed are You, Hashem, our God, King of the universe, Who has wrought miracles for our forefathers, in those days at this season. Graggers are often made of wood … [27] Another brief Persian account is recorded by Masudi in The Meadows of Gold (completed 947 CE). The story is related in the biblical Book of Esther. Learn all about the holiday here. fasting 15 Kislev, celebrating at night/16 Kislev: History of the Jews in the Byzantine Empire, Esther Unmasked: Solving Eleven Mysteries of the Jewish Holidays and Liturgy, "Esther 2 / Hebrew - English Bible / Mechon-Mamre", "Purim How-To Guide – Your Purim 2019 guide contains the story of Purim, and all you need to know about the 4 mitzvahs of Purim and the other observances of the day", Can Women Read the Megillah? The Hebrew greeting loosely translates to "Happy Purim Holiday" and the Yiddish and Ladino translate to "Happy Purim". [104] In 1942, on Purim, the Nazis murdered over 5000 Jews, mostly children, in the Minsk Ghetto. Women's megillah readings have become increasingly common in more liberal Modern Orthodox Judaism, though women may only read for other women, according to Ashkenazi authorities. The Feast of Lots, or Purim, commemorates the salvation of the Jewish people through the heroism of Queen Esther in Persia. Sometimes…that someone…is YOU. Magnes Collection of Jewish Art, University of California, Berkeley. Women have an obligation to hear the Megillah because "they also were involved in that miracle. An additional custom that probably began in Medieval times is that the congregation recites aloud with the reader the verses Esther 2:5, Esther 8:15–16, and Esther 10:3, which relate the origin of Mordecai and his triumph. The first part dated to c. 500 CE provides an exegetical commentary on the first two chapters of the Hebrew Book of Esther and provided source material for the Targum Sheni. Blessed are You, Hashem, our God, King of the universe, Who has kept us alive, sustained us and brought us to this season. Others who "dressed up" or hid whom they were in the story of Esther: Esther not revealing that she is a Jewess; Mordecai being dressed in the king's clothing; "[M]any from among the peoples of the land became Jews; for the fear of the Jews was fallen upon them" (, To recall the episodes that only happened in "outside appearance" as stated in the, The United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism, This page was last edited on 7 January 2021, at 00:33. He also mentions the woman's daughter, Khumay, who is not known in Jewish tradition but is well remembered in Persian folklore. Purim Meshulash, or the three-fold Purim, is a somewhat rare calendric occurrence that affects how Purim is observed in Jerusalem (and, in theory at least, in other cities that were surrounded by a wall in ancient times). Purim is not a public holiday in the United Kingdom. Purim is celebrated on Friday, February 26, 2021. You have been their eternal salvation, and their hope throughout generations. Rabbinic authorities who hold that women should not read the Megillah for themselves, because of an uncertainty as to which blessing they should recite upon the reading, nonetheless agree that they have an obligation to hear it read. "[65] In the early 1950s, the custom was still observed in Iran and some remote communities in Kurdistan[64] where young Muslims would sometimes join in. An in-depth exploration of how the mitzvah of Megillah applies to women, https://www.nishmat.net/Uploads/files/R_Henkin_Women_Megilla_Reading.pdf. Other authorities, including the Magen Avraham, have written that one should drink until one is unable to calculate the gematria (numerical values) of both phrases. [96], Other historic Purim celebrations in Jewish history have occurred in Yemen, Italy, Vilna and other locations. A Critical Edition of the Yiddish and Hebrew Text Including an English Translation", "The Legend of the Window Purim and other Hebron Holiday Stories", French bestseller unravels Nazi propagandist's cryptic last words about Purim, "Behind the Headlines: a Year Without Purim; No Parades, Only Funerals", Aruch HaShulchan: The laws of the Purim Feast and of giving gifts to one's friend on Purim: Mishloach manot, The month of Adar and the holiday of Purim, minhagim (customs) and halachot (laws), Purim celebrations in the IDF, Exhibition in the IDF&defense establishment archives, Day to Mark the Departure and Expulsion of Jews from the Arab Countries and Iran, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Purim&oldid=998779569, Pages containing links to subscription-only content, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2018, Vague or ambiguous geographic scope from November 2017, Articles containing Yiddish-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2011, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2018, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the New International Encyclopedia, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Celebration of Jewish deliverance as told in the Book of Esther (Megillah). , on Purim holiday which commemorates Jewish people believe there ’ s only one God who salvation! 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