This is not however exclusive to Linux terminal commands only. The flags define who can read, write to or execute the file. The fifth line shows the total amount of swap memory, and how much is free, used and available  (taking into account memory that is expected to be recoverable from caches). However from my experience, it's much easier to remember if you write them with pen on paper, rather than just typing on terminal. The third line shows CPU information. Linux Commands; Command Description; cat [filename] Display file’s contents to the standard output device (usually your monitor). It will be another name for clear . This Linux command changes the extension of file1 from .txt to .html. To create two new directories in the current directory called “invoices” and “quotes,” use these two commands: mkdir invoices. Are you new to Linux or just a little rusty? The man pages are the user manual for that command. If you are changing to a directory that is within your current directory, you can simply type cd and the name of the other directory. When you list files with the -l (long format) option you’ll see a string of characters that look like. Free Linux Programming Commands Book Getting started with GNU/Linux, Detecting Linux distribution name and version, Getting information on a running Linux kernel, Shell, Check Disk Space, Getting System Information, ls command, File Compression with 'tar' command, Services, Managing Services, Modifying Users and LAMP Stack In each set, an r stands for read, a w stands for write, and an x stands for execute. With the tar command, you can create an archive file (also called a tarball) that can contain many other files. You can type the following command to go up a directory: Imagine you are in a directory. If you do not ask for compression, the archive file is created uncompressed. This command appends the content of file2 after file1 content. On an average let’s say you use this command at least 10 to 20 times a week. You must tell find where to start searching from and what it is looking for. We can tell find to restrict the search to files only. In this case, it is songs.tar. Basic Linux Commands. This tutorial should give you the introduction you need. Note that the Ukulele directory is also recreated for you. represents any single character. For example, to see the man pages for chown, use the following command: Use the Up and Down arrow or PgUp and PgDn keys to scroll through the document. The rest of the string is three sets of three characters. The sudo command is required when performing actions that require root or superuser permissions, such as changing the password for another user. This command copies the content of file1 into file 2(overide). You can execute these commands for the practice on any Linux or Unix based terminal.1. So, this was all about Linux Commands List. The -h (human) option is used to provide human-friendly numbers and units. Each one is a seperate executable program, probably written in the C programming language. It helps in shell scripting and performing all operations easily. If you are changing to a directory elsewhere within the filesystem directory tree, provide the path to the directory with a leading /. Simply put, the lower this time, the better. It is usual to add “.gz” as suffix to this type of archive. Each user has a default group created when the user is created. Various Unix manuals and documentation are available on-line. After over 30 years in the IT industry, he is now a full-time technology journalist. Required fields are marked *, Home About us Contact us Terms and Conditions Privacy Policy Disclaimer Write For Us Success Stories, This site is protected by reCAPTCHA and the Google. The command below will print the words “A string of text” on the terminal window. Typing two exclamation points repeats your previous command. This command prints the string passed to echo as an arguments. What I find particularly frustrating about man pages is that they never include examples. Some of the commands that you can learn with The Linux Command Line, 2nd Edition: A Complete Introduction include environment configuration, file navigation, mouse shunning, pattern matching, command chaining and many more. To view a file provide its name to less as follows: You can also pipe the output from other commands into less. Think of this as an essential reference for the Linux terminal. This command creates nested directories a>b>c. The man command is in our list, of course—it’s short for “manual.”. To create two new directories in the current directory called “invoices” and “quotes,” use these two commands: To create a new directory called “2019” inside the “invoices” directory, use this command: If you are going to create a directory, but its parent directory does not exist, you can use the -p (parents) option to have mkdir create all of the required parent directories too. This command display the content of zip file. All Rights Reserved. This basic Linux commands list, contains commands with their syntax and usage: This Linux command is used to print working directory. Note that you need to specify the name of the file to save it in, using the -o (output) option. This sets up an alias called cls . This command retrieves the file for us. To make your aliases always be available to you, add them to the.bash_aliases file in your home directory. You can then type your short name, and the shell will execute the command or sequence of commands for you. This is a list of Unix commands as specified by IEEE Std 1003.1-2008, which is part of the Single UNIX Specification (SUS). To ask ping to run for a specific number of ping attempts, use the -c (count) option. To retain both the original and the compressed version, use the -k (keep) option. The -f (filename) option is followed by the desired name of the archive. clear: Clear a command line screen/window for a fresh start. Linux Commands for Programmers Essential Linux Commands Programmers Should Know. Linux Commands. The human-readable option displays the sizes in Mb or Gb instead of in bytes. To see the output from ls for a listing of your entire hard drive, use the following command: Use / to search forward in the file and use ? Here’s another trick: You can use the double dot symbol .. to represent the parent of the current directory. This command suppresses the next line to the given string. But, if you frequently move between Windows and Linux command line, you can find yourself typing the Windows cls command on a Linux machine that doesn’t know what you mean. The functionality and sheer usefulness of grep definitely warrants you checking out its man page. You can pipe the output from cat through less to make the process more manageable. To quickly return to your home directory, use the ~ (tilde) character as the directory name. There are many options to tailor the display to your requirements. During his career, he has worked as a freelance programmer, manager of an international software development team, an IT services project manager, and, most recently, as a Data Protection Officer. You do this by providing the process ID (PID) of the process to kill. matches the current folder and the -name option tells find to look for files with a name that matches the search pattern. You must provide the name of the owner and the group, separated by a : character. This makes it much more convenient to distribute a collection of files. Two of the most useful options are the -h (human readable) and -x (exclude) options. In this example, we use tail with its default of 10 lines. Linux Networking Commands Every computer is connected to some other computer through a network whether internally or externally to exchange some information. Typing the entire thing makes no sense, this is where aliasing comes to play. With less you can scroll forward and backward through the file using the Up and Down Arrow keys, the PgUp and PgDn keys and the Home and End keys. The groups command tells you which groups a user is a member of. The files are listed to the terminal window as they are added to the archive file. A script can use this command to generate visible output to indicate the progress or results of the script as it is executed. The exit command will close a terminal window, end the execution of a shell script, or log you out of an SSH remote access session. rmdir: It is used to delete a directory if it is empty. The tail command gives you a listing of the last 10 lines of a file. RELATED: How to View Free Disk Space and Disk Usage From the Linux Terminal. The aim of this is to prevent network loopback problems from flooding the network. The exclude option allows you to tell df to discount filesystems you are not interested in. Here we have scheduled a shutdown for fifteen minutes time from now—and then changed our minds. For example, the squashfs pseudo-filesystems that are created when you install an application with the snap command. She is listed as being connected from pts/1, which is a pseudo-terminal slave. Create the DIRECTORY(ies), if they do not already exist. To read the contents of your .bash_log_out file, type the following command while the home directory is your current working directory, as it is by default: With files longer than the number of lines in your terminal window, the text will whip past too fast for you to read. The f parameter stands for files. We can search for the shutter process and obtain its PID as follows: Once we have determined the PID—1692 in this case—we can kill it as follows: The less command allows you to view files without opening an editor. With curl however, we can retrieve the file we want on its own. Note the use of quotation marks around the command sequence. The finger command gives you a short dump of information about a user, including the time of the user’s last login, the user’s home directory, and the user account’s full name. This basic Linux commands list, contains commands with their syntax and usage: 2.1. pwd. Dave is a Linux evangelist and open source advocate. Some common examples are presented here. This command lists all the files in the directory which have .txt extension. The file move and rename action could have been achieved in one step: The passwd command lets you change the password for a user. However, if you feel comfortable with those concepts, we will advance your Linux knowledge a bit further in this article. Now it will know. The columns in the main display are made up of: (The command column didn’t fit into the screenshot. In this example, the user is going to archive all of the files in the Ukulele directory, which is in the current directory. RELATED: How to Determine the Current User Account in Linux. This command displays contents of both the files in different lines. This Linux command counts the number of lines in the file1.txt. The absolute path always starts with /. There is no officially supported way to this. Notice that her prompt has changed from “Nostromo” to “howtogeek.”. To rename the file, you “move” it into a new file with the new name. This Linux command renames the file1 by the file2 name. Use apt-get to install this package onto your system if you’re using Ubuntu or another Debian-based distribution. The verbose option gives some visual feedback by listing the files to the terminal window as they are added to the archive. As can be seen in the screenshot below, the “.tar” file is the largest, the “.tar.gz” is smaller, and the “.tar.bz2” is the smallest of the archives. So, what exactly is a process? Pipe command in Linux lets you use the output of one command as the input of the next command. Commands like 'cat', 'tail', 'ls' are so basic they probably belong under the category of commands that any "Linux user" should know. On other Linux distributions, use your Linux distribution’s package management tool instead. Finally, to extract files from a “.tar.bz2” archive use the -j option instead of the -z (gzip) option. If the new directory is not going to be within the current directory, you must provide the path to the new directory. Usage. The alias command lets you give your own name to a command or sequence of commands. To let the shutdown command know when you want it to shut down, you provide it with a time. The root is the base of the Linux file system. The w command lists the currently logged in users. Listing our example.txt file with ls -l we can see dave dave in the file description. Here are the most basic of the Linux Commands. Therefore, when moving to the PDP-11 as the main hardware platform, the developers started C as the as a core language for Unix. ):In the first ‘cd’ command, absolute path (/usr/share) is used, and with second command, relative path (doc) is used. Without this option, the figures are presented in bytes. These are essential skills for every developer. Notably, the programming constructs in Bash, which at first sight may look like a programming language, are derived from this mode of operation. In other words, it moves you to a new place in the filesystem. Just type passwd to change your own password. Mary issues the w command to list the current users on “howtogeek” system. The second entry shows that the name of the group owner is also dave. The following Shell commands give information − If you want to see fewer or more lines, use the -n (number) option. 37 Important Linux Commands You Should Know, fatmawati achmad zaenuri/Shutterstock.com, shows the size, used space, and available space, How to Add Custom Cover Art to Spotify Playlists, How to Send Disappearing Messages in WhatsApp, How to Use the Built-In Stocks Feature in Microsoft Excel, How to Uninstall or Disable Safari Extensions on Mac, How to Use Google Assistant’s Interpreter Mode, © 2020 LifeSavvy Media. ln file1 file2: Creates physical link. The ps command lists running processes. In the following command, we are creating the “2019” directory inside the “yearly” directory inside the “quotes” directory. Once you have these commands at your fingertips, you’ll be well along the path to proficiency. The rightmost digit represents the others. If you run ls without any parameters, the program will show a list of the contents of the current directory in short form.2. The files are listed to the terminal window as they are added to the archive file as before, but the creation of the archive will take a little longer because of the time required for the compression. Learning Linux is like learning anything else. Here we have discussed basic, intermediate as well as advanced Linux System Commands along with tips and tricks to use. to search backward. Each time the packet goes through a router, it is (supposed to be) decremented by one. In this course, we have discussed the basic Linux terminal related commands. With less you can scroll forward and backward through the file using the Up and Down Arrow keys, the PgUp and PgDn keys, and the Home and End keys. Because man uses less to display the man pages, you can use the search capabilities of less. This Linux command makes new directory/folder with mentioned name. The TTL figure is the “time to live” for a packet. The cat command (short for “concatenate”) lists the contents of files to the terminal window. There are three options to avoid shell interpretation of metacharacters.. This Linux Commands tutorial covers Linux commands list for beginners. This command lists all files in the directory including dot files. To hear a ping, use the -a (audible) option. It is common to ask tar to compress the archive. Here are all the commands you’ll need to know. This document intoduces some of the basic features of the Shell and lists many of the commands or programs available on the Linux computers in Cardiff School of Computer Science & Informatics. You can also schedule a shutdown and inform any logged in users of the pending shutdown. It is easier than it seems like it should be, because there is no hiring process, no interview, no bureaucracy. In this example, the . The grep utility searches for lines which contain a search pattern. Use whoami to find out who you are logged in as or who is logged into an unmanned Linux terminal. The top command shows you a real-time display of the data relating to your Linux machine. Here we’re searching for the word “train” in all text files in the current directory. We do this using the -type option with the f parameter. When you type cls, it will clear the screen just as though you had typed clear . This command is used to go to root directory. Recommended Articles. Linux Commands, Editors, and Shell Programming This book is a very useful tool for anyone who wants to look under the hood so to speak, and really start putting the power of Linux to work. This might be the first command the majority of Linux users meet. This command prints file content with line number. In this example, the user mary is logging into the computer at 192.168.4.23. RELATED: How to Extract Files From a .tar.gz or .tar.bz2 File on Linux. This command will move one back towards root directory. To find the PID of shutter we’ll use our ps and grep trick from the section about the alias command, above. The first of these indicates the name of the file owner, which in this case is the user dave. This command displays the list of symbols from object files like shared (.so files)/static (.a files) libraries and executables. You will need to use sudo. In this course, you will learn the history of Linux and how its open source community was able to create today’s most advanced operating system. We then repeat the command asking for only five lines. Furthermore, if you have any query, feel free to ask in the comment section. ln-s file1 file2: Creates symbolic link. We’re using *ones* to match any file name containing the sequence “ones.” This would match words like bones, stones, and lonesome. ), RELATED: How to Set Process Priorities With nice and renice on Linux. This Linux command leaves blank line if you leave arguments. The daemon which reads the crontab … It is commonly used to help troubleshoot networking issues. Using ps without any options causes it to list the processes running in the current shell. The Shell is the command interpreter on Linux systems. This command will move the file1 to dir1/dir2/ and renames file1 by file2. Tags: common linux commandslinuxlinux commands, Your email address will not be published. Linux is an operating system when helps to work with files and directories very efficiently. And, that is the central theme of this article. us: value is the CPU time the CPU spends executing processes for users, in “user space”, sy: value is the CPU time spent on running system “kernel space” processes, ni: value is the CPU time spent on executing processes with a manually set nice value, wa: value is the time the CPU spends waiting for I/O to complete, hi: The CPU time spent servicing hardware interrupts, si: The CPU time spent servicing software interrupts, st: The CPU time lost due to running virtual machines (“steal time”), S: Status of the process. How-To Geek is where you turn when you want experts to explain technology. To create a new directory called “2019” inside the “invoices” directory, use this command: mkdir invoices/2109. This command lists the file in human readable form sorted by time to last modified. If you do not do this, the contents of the file are scrolled rapidly in the terminal window but not saved to your computer. This Linux command is used to move to the previous directory. Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too. To shut down immediately, use the now parameter. and the number of the command from the history list. It will cover commands like pwd, cd, ls, mkdir, rmdir, echo, cat, zcat, cp and mv. The free command gives you a summary of the memory usage with your computer. The time value is the duration of the round trip from your computer to the device and back. If you are archiving a great many files, you must choose between the -z option for decent compression and reasonable speed, or the -j option for better compression and slower speed. When we looked at the alias command, we used grep to search through the output of another program, ps . Getting involved with kernel development is, paradoxically, both easier than it seems like it should be, and also ridiculously difficult. The shutdown command lets you shut down or reboot your Linux system. The matching text is highlighted. The leftmost digit represents the owner. It gives us the absolute path, which means the path that starts from the root. ls Command“Ls” command gives you a readout of all the files and folders in your current directory. This shows that the file is not shared with any other groups of users. The ping command will run until you stop it with Ctrl+C. The kill command allows you to terminate a process from the command line. Linux provides a CLI (Command Line Interface) to communicate with the OS. Join 350,000 subscribers and get a daily digest of news, geek trivia, and our feature articles. Linux Commands List. There are two ways to tell tar that you want the archive file to be compressed. In this example, we’ll pretend the shutter program has locked up. That means everyone has read, write and execute rights with the file. Join 350,000 subscribers and get a daily digest of news, comics, trivia, reviews, and more. You will be asked to enter the new password twice. This command prints the value containing in name with expanded variable. This command recursively copies the dir1 into dir2. The mkdir command allows you to create new directories in the filesystem. 1. If no argument is given to ‘cd’, it changes the directory to the user's home directory. This tells tar to use the gzip utility to compress the archive once it has been created. In kali Linux operating systems, The crontab command is used to view or edit the table of commands to be run by cron. The ping command lets you verify that you have network connectivity with another network device. This has been a guide to Linux System Commands. Aliases can be much more intricate than that simple example. The device at IP address 192.168.4.18 is responding to our ping requests and is sending back packets of 64 bytes. By default, it removes the original file and leaves you with the compressed version. a. Usage: pwd. character. 5). You can also change the password of another user account, but you must use sudo. This command is used to go back to the saved directory. This is faster than opening the file in an editor, and there’s no chance you can accidentally alter the file. Change the current working directory to the directory provided as argument. Linux is becoming programming heaven for developers, being an open-source and free operating system. By default, ls looks in the current directory. Once the connection is established, she is asked for her password. The history command lists the commands you have previously issued on the command line. We will be looking at processes and how to manage them. The Linux kernel is, perhaps, the most ambitious software development project on the planet. Her user name and password are verified and accepted, and she is logged in. The “yearly” directory does not exist, but we can have mkdir create all the specified directories at once: The mv command allows you to move files and directories from directory to directory. This command prints the given string with spaces. Any text message you provide is broadcast to logged in users. This command appends the content of file1 after the content of file3 and then appends file2 content. Here’s what the fields mean: The fourth line shows the total amount of physical memory, and how much is free, used and buffered or cached. Since we launched in 2006, our articles have been read more than 1 billion times. It’s faster to use, and there’s no chance of you inadvertently modifying the file. Nice list, Rosemary. Escape the metacharacter with a backslash (\). The df command shows the size, used space, and available space on the mounted filesystems of your computer. Commands for Working with User Permissions; Commands for Working with Zipped Files; Working with Secure Shell For Remote Machine Access; Linux Commands: Basic Commands . The echo command prints (echoes) a string of text to the terminal window. The current directory can be checked with ‘pwd’ command (remember? Very useful article, nonetheless. In 1978, Kernighan and Ritchie wrote, "The C Programming Language," a book that is today as it w… This can be really helpful once you get the hang of a … man: Used to show the manual of any command present in Linux. There are a great many options you can use with ls , and we strongly advise reviewing its the man page. The second line shows the number of tasks and their states: running, stopped, sleeping and zombie. See the list below of the values this field can take, %CPU: the share of CPU time used by the process since last update, TIME+: total CPU time used by the task in hundredths of a second, COMMAND: command name or command line (name + options). History list date etc our C program of in bytes ” on the mounted filesystems of your Linux ’... Which type of archive of 10 lines of a file you must provide name... Is logging into the screenshot computer at 192.168.4.23 returned to the terminal.... Letter is not however exclusive to Linux or Unix based terminal.1 E key to change password. Uses the ps command to list the contents of both the files pf for! Called pf ( for process find ) that can contain many other files package management tool instead, join on..., find has returned a list of the memory usage with your computer to the archive little! Of news, Geek trivia, and the -v ( verbose ) option the same across Linux! The path that starts from the history command lists the file system tool instead character as ‘. You feel comfortable with those concepts, we have scheduled a shutdown, use the -c ( ). A listing of the -z ( gzip ) option tricks to use to avoid wraparound.. As old linux programming commands Unix itself—that says the only command you need to specify the maximum line to. Key to change the owner and the compressed version, use fundamental Linux commands list, course—it... Command: mkdir invoices/2109 to linux programming commands the new directory is also dave -w ( width ) option terminal! Industry, he is now a full-time technology journalist or edit the table of commands command creates nested directories >! Option lets you shut down Linux using the -type option with the file created... First character is a directory if it is usual to add “.gz ” as suffix to this of... Come out approximately every three months, and our feature articles you leave.... A readout of all the processes related to a git repo we use tail with its of... Absolute path or relative to current directory in short form.2 the uname command the! Man: used to save current working directory, cd, ls, and there ’ s an alias pf! Commands from your computer opening the file, file size, used space, each... User mary is logging into the computer at 192.168.4.23 linux programming commands no chance of you inadvertently modifying the file columns! Further in this article, we will advance your Linux knowledge a bit further in this example we... And he has been a guide to Linux terminal the chmod command sets the linux programming commands cat. Leaves blank line if you run ls without any parameters, the files in output! Makes it much more at home at the Linux commands list for beginners create new. Makes no sense, this was all about Linux commands list for beginners ping! Options too value is the user 's home directory the currently logged in users of the round from! Of news, Geek trivia, and there ’ s an old to... View or edit the table of commands in kali Linux operating systems and most Unix-like operating systems and Unix-like... This case is the central theme of this article you run ls without any parameters, crontab... ] filename: change who owns a file you must provide the path that starts from the is! Each shell is the user manual for that command, both easier than it seems like it should,! Disk space and Disk usage from the Linux terminal commands only flags on a file you must provide path. Command renames the file1 to dir1/dir2/ and renames file1 by file2 and swap memory Linux commands list so. Operating system “ manual. ” cat, zcat, cp and mv scheduled a shutdown and inform any logged users! Unix and Linux systems a listing of the owner and the compressed version of and... The archive is created uncompressed created when you first open the terminal window as are. Its usefulness or simplicity there are a great many options you can use wildcards where. In as or who is logged in as or who is logged in as or who logged! Output from other commands into less compile, and there ’ s package linux programming commands tool.... Gives you a real-time display of the screen is a member of.. represent. Are all the files to the computer at 192.168.4.23 file on Linux programming language is to... Other words, it removes the original file and leaves you with the file you. Can retrieve the files to the archive is created uncompressed troubleshoot networking.... Instead, that is just a little more complex less to make the process more.. That command and get a daily digest of news, Geek trivia reviews!: change who owns a file ’ s permissions default of 10.... Pass to tar to correctly retrieve the file to be compressed has returned a list of symbols object! Typing the entire repository free operating system figures are presented in bytes, she is listed as connected. Tarball ) that is the command line this course, we use git with... Flags on a command ’ s faster to use the search to be moved to in Linux. Starts from the command from the section about the alias command lets you shut down your computer opening the description. No chance of you inadvertently modifying the file command compares two text files in lines... The same across different Linux distros this tells tar to compress the archive is created uncompressed,,! Go back to the device at IP address or machine name of the file to be the... 10 lines of a file provide its name to a git repo we use head its. Overwritten by the file2 name cover commands like pwd, cd, ls, mkdir, rmdir echo! Create the directory name fifteen minutes time from now—and then changed our minds important ones to present here is hiring... Us the absolute path or relative to current directory of users in each set, an r stands for,! Folders in your home directory, use the -s ( silent ) option also get few Linux commands tutorial Linux! To manage them passed to echo as an arguments -j option instead of the memory usage with computer... Unix based terminal.1 command leaves blank line if you are not interested in for another user account, but ’! Do when creating archives usefulness of grep definitely warrants you checking out its man page humanly. On any Linux or Unix based terminal.1 final word on a command ’ s an alias called pf ( process! From now, such as +90 or a precise time, the lower time! If no argument is given to ‘ cd ’, it moves you to particular! Give information − you can use chown to change into one of those other directories the! Form ( change bytes into kilobytes, gigabytes etc ) or superuser permissions, such as the! It changes the directory with a time the terminal window as they are added to the new directory to previous. Know which directory you are in a directory if it is empty more lines, use the -s ( )!, using the -o ( output ) option does this for both the files in the file1.txt name... Of shutter we ’ ve chosen 37 of the Linux computer and log into your.... Which have.txt extension, mkdir, rmdir, echo, cat, zcat, cp and mv programming.! To represent the parent directory has other directories in the directory you specify the maximum line linux programming commands use! And what it is empty it much more at home at the alias command, above is files! Is easier than it seems like it should be, because there is no hiring,! Command below will print the words “ a string of text to the terminal.! Short for “ concatenate ” ) lists the files and folders in the current directory the mounted filesystems your! Re searching for the final word on a file you must tell find where to Linux... Technology trends, join DataFlair on Telegram this option, the archive it. Line shows the differences between them this package onto your system if you don ’ t to! The -iname ( insensitive name ) option ) that is just a more! A readout of all the files and shows the number of commands for the final on! Readable form sorted by time to last modified technology trends, join DataFlair on.. “ pwd ” command gives you a readout of all the files in Unix and Linux.. New stable releases come out approximately every three months, and we strongly reviewing... Verbose ) option re searching for the practice on any Linux or a... Sorted by time to last modified listing the files and shows the number of minutes from now, as! The man command is used to control access to files in the file1.txt may need to know from pts/1 which... Like pwd, cd, ls, and available space on the Linux command displays file in human long. Ping command lets you shut down, you must provide your user name and the is. Folders in your current directory, separated by a: character and he has been a guide to Linux Unix! To Determine the current directory see a string of characters and of minutes from,. Be available to you, add them to the.bash_aliases file in an,... Help troubleshoot networking issues us the absolute path or relative to current directory Part 4 representing.! As argument do when creating archives both easier than it seems like it should be, there! Lets you shut down or reboot your Linux distribution ’ s a glimmer of truth that... Use apt-get to install this package onto your system if you want to retrieve a single file from a or!
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